Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of coordinating the information that supports a business’s operations. It involves storing data and distribution to application programs and users, modifying it as necessary and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from getting corrupted by unexpected failures. It’s a component of an organization’s overall informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which enabled the storage and retrieve large amounts of information for a range of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a collection of tables that organizes data in accordance with an established pattern, such as one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and permit cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields, referred to as attributes, which provide information about the data entities. The most popular type of database today is a relational model created by E. F. «Ted» Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the need to update many sections of the database.

The majority of DBMSs support a variety of databases and offer different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level concerns the cost, scalability, and other operational issues, such as the physical layout of the database. The external level is how the database is displayed in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a mixture of various external views based on different data models and may also include virtual tables that are computed using generic data in order to improve the performance.

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